Getmail pop smtp

getmail pop smtp

As with SMTP, when using the POP3 protocol you first need to create a POP3 all messages or specific messages using the getMail() method. Unlike POP3 and IMAP that are used for receiving messages, SMTP is used for sending messages. It combines with the Mail Transfer Agent to help. getmail is a simple mail retrieval agent intended as a replacement for fetchmail, implemented in Python. It can retrieve mail from POP3, IMAP4, and Standard. FORTINET TRUCK PAPER

Addendum, January since I wrote the above, the following new security problems have been discovered in fetchmail:. A domain or multidrop mailbox is a POP3 mailbox which receives mail for all users in a given domain. Normal mailboxes contain mail for a single user like jason myisp. See the documentation on the [retriever] section for details of what the requirements for a multidrop mailbox are.

When run as the root user on a Unix-like system, getmail drops privileges switches to an unprivileged group and user id before delivering to maildirs or mboxrd files. You can specify the user explicitly, or let getmail use the owner of the maildir or mboxrd file. If getmail attempts to deliver mail and finds it has UID 0 or GID 0, it will refuse the delivery and print an error message.

A maildir is a mail storage format invented by D. Bernstein author of qmail that requires no file locking to deliver to safely and reliably, even over NFS. There are various sub-types of the mbox mail storage format.

In particular, using mbox files with multiple writers over NFS can be problematic. The "envelope" of an email message is "message metadata"; that is, the message is information, and the envelope is information about the message information about other information.

Knowing this is critical to understanding what a domain or multidrop mailbox is, how it works, and what getmail can do for you. Others have tried to explain this with varying degrees of success. I'll use the standard analogy of normal postal i. When you receive a letter a reply from the customer-disservice department of your telephone company, say it arrives in an envelope.

You tear it open, remove the letter, and read it. At the top of the letter is the telephone company's return address, followed by the date the letter was written. Your name and mailing address follow that, and then the remainder of the letter. The important thing to keep in mind is that the contents of the letter including the addresses just discussed are never looked at by the post office.

If they can't deliver the letter your mailing address on the envelope got smudged in the rain , they'll return it to the address listed in the top-left corner of the envelope. They don't check to make sure that the address listed there is the same as the one listed at the top of the letter. Similarly, when they can successfully deliver it, they don't check to make sure that the recipient name and address on the envelope matches the one listed on the letter between the date and the salutation.

The message header fields From: and Resent-from: are equivalent to the block of address information at the top of the letter; it usually contains the name and address of the sender of the message, but it is never actually used in the delivery of the message. Similarly, the To: , cc: , Resent-to: , and Resent-cc: header fields are the equivalent of the block of address information between the date and the salutation on the letter; they usually contain the names and addresses of the intended recipients of the message, but they too are not used in the delivery of the message.

You might open an envelope addressed to you and find that the letter inside makes no mention of your name. Your name and address don't appear anywhere in the letter, but it was still successfully delivered to you based on the envelope information. There's nothing strange about this. If someone else opens your mail for you, discards the envelopes, and places the contents in your in-basket, you might wonder how some of it ended up there, because there's nothing to connect you with the message contents.

Email is exactly like this. Each message has two parts, the message contents, and the message envelope. The message contents include the message header, and the message body. The message envelope is made up of exactly one envelope sender address which can be empty and one or more envelope recipient addresses.

If the message cannot be delivered for any reason, and the envelope sender address is not empty, the message must be returned to the envelope sender address by the mail transfer agent MTA which last accepted responsibility for delivering the message. These notifications are known as "bounce messages" or sometimes as "non-delivery notifications". Bounce messages are sent using the empty envelope return path, to prevent mail loops from occurring when a bounce message itself cannot be delivered.

Confusion often arises among novice users about the difference between the message header and the message envelope; they seem to believe that they are not independant. This appears to be an artifact of their use of simple-minded GUI mail user agents MUAs that do not allow them to set the envelopes of their messages explicitly, but instead simply use the contents of the From: header field as the envelope sender address, and any addresses found in To: , cc: , and bcc: header fields as the envelope recipient addresses.

While these are sensible as default values , more powerful MUAs allow the user to override this choice. The last MTA to receive a message usually the one running on the POP or IMAP server where you retrieve your mail from essentially acts as your correspondence secretary, accepting your mail from the postman, opening it, and placing it into your in-basket.

Note that this would normally destroy the important information contained in the message envelope. To prevent this loss of information, this MTA is supposed to copy the information from the envelope into new fields in the header of the message content, as if your secretrary copied the sender and recipient addresses onto the back of your letters in felt pen. Unfortunately, some MTAs do not always do this properly, and envelope information can then be lost. When this happens, it makes dealing with certain types of mail messages problematic:.

MTAs are supposed to record the envelope sender address by placing it into a new Return-Path: header field at the top of the message. They should then record the envelope recipient address es in another new header field; sometimes this header field is named Delivered-To: , but it can also be Envelope-To: or one of a few other names.

A domain or multidrop mailbox is one which receives mail for multiple email addresses commonly all addresses in a given domain. You cannot do this by looking at the To: , cc: , or other informational message header fields, because they do not actually reflect the message envelope at the time of delivery. Instead, you have to reconstruct the envelope information from the message header fields which the MTA on the server used to record it at the time of delivery.

If the final MTA does not record the message envelope the envelope sender, and all envelope recipient addresses in the domain mailbox the message was sent to , then mail will be lost or misdirected regardless of which software you use to access the mailbox. The mailbox cannot actually be said to be a domain mailbox in this case; the defining characteristic of a domain mailbox is that it records the envelope correctly. The configuration of the MTA running on the server needs to be fixed so that the envelope is properly recorded for every message it receives.

The configuration file format is actually very simple; you don't need to worry about most of it if you're not interested in using those features. The simplest and most common getmail rc file configuration will be for users who want to retrieve all mail from a single-user POP3 mailbox, deliver those messages to a maildir or mbox file, and delete the mail from the server.

For maildir, that configuration is:. Create a separate getmail rc file for each account, and run getmail with multiple --rcfile options. Use the received [options] parameter. You don't need to. If you still think you need to, you can use getmail's external MDA support to do so. Use the maildirmake command, if you have it installed.

Otherwise, run the following command from your shell:. Some other maildir-aware programs ship with their own maildir-creation programs; you can use those, or make the above shell command a shellscript or alias if you like. Create a completely empty i. The standard utility touch is commonly used:. In nmh, this command is called rcvstore. You just run getmail under whatever process-supervision or periodic-job system you already have on your system.

That example would run getmail continuously, sleeping for 30 minutes between runs. You can probably work out similar scripts for other process-supervision systems. If you don't have such a system, you can use your system's cron utility to run getmail periodically, but you absolutely have to prevent multiple copies of getmail from being run by cron simultaneously. Most versions of cron have no protection for this built-in, so you have to use setlock or flock or a similar utility to prevent it.

For more details, see How do I stop multiple instances of getmail from running at the same time? If you do not prevent multiple copies of getmail running against the same server and IMAP folder simultaneously, you will get odd behaviour, including retrieving the same messages multiple times.

Some users with flaky servers use this option to reduce the chances of seeing messages more than once if the server dies in mid-session. Well, you could write a retriever that speaks Hotmail's proprietary, undocumented, and unsupported access protocol, or simply set up the POP3 proxy from the httpmail package, and have getmail retrieve mail from that POP3 proxy. These are supplementary questions I occasionally see about doing various things to enhance a getmail setup.

The solution to many of them is to use a standard Unix technique of some sort to make the system behave in a certain manner, or otherwise change the behaviour of something that's actually outside of getmail proper. Some people ask about temporarily stopping getmail from running from a cron job, possibly because the mail server is down and they don't want to see the warnings cron mails them.

The easiest method is to comment out getmail from your crontab file:. If you need to do this on a regular basis, you can instead use a "flag file" to tell the system whether or not to run getmail :. Change your cron job or shellscript that normally launches getmail to check for the presence of a certain file first, and have it not run getmail if that file is present.

For example, your crontab entry could be changed to do this:. This is even safe for scripting, as creating and removing the file are atomic operations under Unix. In particular, if you're running getmail from a crontab, you must do something to prevent cron from starting getmail if the previous invocation is still running. If you need to prevent two instances of getmail from running simultaneously, use any standard Unix method of providing a mutex for this purpose.

One example would be to run getmail under a program like setlock part of the daemontools package. Change your script or crontab file to invoke getmail like this:. There are other programs that provide functionality similar to setlock. In both configurations, SpamAssassin accepts a wide variety of arguments; please refer to SpamAssassin's manual pages or online documentation for details.

The value supplied to the -s option is the maximum message size accepted in bytes. The default is k. A similar configuration without the spamd daemon would be:. The --report option sends the message to the various spam-blocker databases and tags it as spam in your bayesian database. That is, the headers added by the other filters may get learned, and affect your database. To prevent this, ensure that SpamAssassin ignores these fields by adding the following to your SpamAssassin configuration:.

You should also read this message in the getmail users' mailing list archives and the ClamAV documentation if you want to use ClamAV with getmail. In either case, you need to add the StreamSaveToDisk option to your clamav. To use ClamAV without the clamd daemon, use a filter configuration like this:. The above assumes you do not want the infected emails to be delivered. If you do want them delivered, you would use a slightly different configuration:.

To use ClamAV with the clamd daemon, use a filter configuration like this:. As with Clamscan above , if you do want the infected messages delivered instead of dropped, you should modify your configuration as follows:. You may find it necessary to specify the paths of some decompression utilities used by ClamAV with additional arguments like:.

The paths to the various decompression utilities must be specified in this file as well. This can make auditing the actions of filters difficult if you use multiple filters and cannot tell which filter added which line. To correct this, you can use an additional filter to change the name of the added filter header lines immediately after each filter is run. For example, reformail , from the maildrop package which is in turn part of the Courier MTA can be used in this fashion to rename the added header fields say, to "X-mypersonalmailscan" with a filter configuration like this:.

Simply ensure ClamAV is invoked as the first filter, and this is invoked as the second filter or immediately after the ClamAV filter, if it is the second, third, etc. The wrapper script f-prot-wrapper. Simply invoke procmail as an external MDA. To supply the -f option to procmail, do something like this:. Simply invoke maildrop as an external MDA. One of the following would be fine:. If you want to specify a maildrop rc file as one of its arguments, that would be something like:.

As of getmail version 4. There are frequent reports like the following, which aren't bugs in getmail. Please read them before reporting them as bugs. There's a couple of different problems here. They do this as soon as an RETR command is given, so if getmail tries to download a message and it fails for any reason delivery fails due to a full disk, or the Gmail server fails to respond, or the network connection dies before the transfer is complete, or the Gmail server fails to respond to the QUIT command, or … , the next time getmail connects to that Gmail account, Gmail will have "helpfully" deleted the message from the POP3 mailbox, even though getmail never issued a DELE command.

So Gmail silently destroys mail, from a POP3 perspective. There's nothing getmail can do about this. Note this feature of Gmail is not well-publicized. The other issue here is that Google doesn't include mail from your trash or spam folders in the POP3 view, so getmail can't see those messages either. That's generally less of an issue, provided their spam filters never give false positive results ha! The server you're trying to use does not properly uniquely identify messages getmail noticed when it saw the same "unique" identifier twice in the same mailbox at the same time.

The OS X implementation of realloc is broken , and there's nothing getmail can do about it. To work around the problem, upgrade to getmail v. What is getmail6 and how does it relate to getmail? Does getmail run on MS Windows? Does getmail run on Macintosh systems? How can I get support for getmail? I think I found a bug! How do I report it? Each stanza in the. The first line instructs fetchmail to connect to mail. The nodns tells fetchmail not to perform a DNS lookup on the envelope sender domain of messages retrieved from this server.

The second line tells it to log in as user dsill with password flubgart and that the local recipient of the messages is user dave. The forcecr option is required with qmail when fetchmail is configured to reinject messages via SMTP, which is the default. Fetchmail can also be configured to reinject messages using qmail-inject. For example:. Using Fetchmail with Domain Mailboxes Fetchmail includes support for qmail virtual domains.

A mailbox on a qmail system can accumulate mail for an entire virtual domain, and fetchmail on another qmail system can retrieve that mailbox and automatically redeliver the messages to multiple local addresses. For example, say virtual. The virtualdomains entry on isp. User mjsill creates a. On her local qmail system, user maryjane creates a. The qvirtual keyword specifies a virtual domain prefix to be stripped from the local part of address in the first Delivered-To header field, which becomes the recipient on the local system.

Fetchmail, on receiving the message, would take the local part of the address, mjsill-virtual-info , remove the prefix specified with the qvirtual keyword, mjsill-virtual- , and reinject the message to info localhost. Using getmail getmail is a program that retrieves mail from a POP server and delivers it to a maildir mailbox, mbox mailbox, or a command.

It's written in the Python language, so you may need to install the Python interpreter before you can use getmail. Installing getmail If you've got Python version 1. To install it, follow these steps:. Download the getmail tarball using your Web browser or a commandline utility.

At the time of this writing, the current version is 2. For example, using the wget utility, do this:. HTTP request sent, awaiting response. Copy the getmail files to their installed locations. The format of the getmailrc is similar to that used in many Windows configuration files, with sections labeled in square brackets [] and settings in this format:.

The [default] section contains settings that act as defaults for the remaining sections. Each named section tells getmail how to retrieve one remote POP3 mailbox. For example, a simple getmailrc might look like this:.

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How Email Works using SMTP, POP3 and IMAP getmail pop smtp

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